Один слог — а в сравнительной и превосходной степени more/most?

 

Мы учим, что если прилагательное состоит из одного слога, то сравнительная/превосходная степень его будет строится без more/most. И исключения здесь не исключения, ведь better/best, worse/worst, further/furthest также не нуждаются в more. Один слог — значит на конце чаще всего -er/-est. Но не всегда:

 

real – more real – most real

right – more right – most right

wrong – more wrong – most wrong

ill – more ill – most ill или worse — worst 

worth (не путать с worse или worst)– more worth – most worth

prime (“main”, “important”) – more prime – most prime

loath (“not willing to”) – more loath – most loath

fun – more fun – most fun

 

Всё? Нет. Сравнительную/превосходную степень могут иметь и причастия прошедшего времени в значении прилагательных, возьмём третью форму неправильных глаголов:

 

lost-more lost — most lost : потерянный, 

read — more read — most read: читаемый,

shown , drawn, seen, heard, thought, bought, brought, learnt, swept, kept, gone.

 

Что же мы тут видим? Опять исключения? Не совсем. Это просто другое правило. Ведь правило о -er/est распространяется на обыкновенные прилагательные, а это — отглагольные. Поэтому они из него не выпадают, а просто под него не попадают. Да и к тому же, не все «третьи формы» имеют один слог, а из те, что имеют, употребляются в сравнениях не так часто, как можно подумать. Ведь гораздо красивее вместо «most bought» сказать «best-selling». Из оставшихся нужно ещё выбрать те, которые вообще подвержены изменениям по формам. Какая-нибудь фраза «most come» воспринимается носителями скорее в значении «большинство родом из», нежели «наиболее приходящий», всегда же можно воспользоваться заготовками «most often», «mainly», «favourite», «preferably» и нам не придётся возводить с степени это несчастные неправильные глаголы. 

А что же насчёт счастливых правильных глаголов? Да, причастия прошедшего времени от них тоже нередко имеют один слог. Взгляните:

 

stressed, bored, trapped, scratched, stretched, loved, praised, dead, striked, poured, smashed, stopped, fried, boiled, grilled, , cracked, filled, hoped, sniffed, licked, rolled.

 

Это, конечно, только начало, ведь благодаря конверсии в английском языке из существительного может без изменений выйти глагол, а от него — причастие. 

 

Так какие же причастия прошедшего времени из одного слога (one syllable past participle ) есть в английском?

Ну, например:

 

 

learned

 

skinned

feigned

 

brained

twinned

 

 

groined

quoined

splined

 

plained

chained

deigned

 

drained

grained

trained

 

stained

 

reigned

 

groaned

 

gleaned

 

sheened

 

greened

preened

queened

 

prawned

spawned

clowned

spurned

swouned

mourned

churned

 

yearned

 

scorned

 

cairned

thorned

spooned

crooned

 

throned

 

swooned

 

grinned

chinned

shinned

thinned

swanned

spanned

divined

planned

scanned

 

signed

damned

canned

manned

stoned

horned

darned

veined

finned

ginned

binned

dinned

pinned

sinned

tinned

conned

donned

wonned

dunned

funned

gunned

panned

tanned

vanned

wanned

denned

kenned

penned

yenned

fanned

banned

hymned

kilned

limned

trined

dwined

twined

ruined

phoned

neoned

punned

sunned

tunned

earned

warned

yarned

burned

corned

kerned

girned

sorned

durned

turned

downed

yawned

gowned

pawned

pruned

dawned

fawned

 

droned

zooned

ironed

cloned

mooned

peined

reined

seined

 

whined

chined

shined

spined

brined

opined

coined

foined

joined

gained

pained

rained

sained

opened

omened

evened

keened

peened

weened

weaned

yeaned

beaned

deaned

jeaned

leaned

planed

loaned

moaned

staned

craned

 

paned

maned

acned

vaned

waned

saned

baned

caned

dined

fined

lined

mined

pined

tined

vined

wined

inned

boned

coned

honed

awned

tuned

owned

zoned

toned

tyned

 

 

 

touched

 

pouched

tetched

retched

fetched

letched

lurched

patched

watched

batched

hatched

latched

matched

parched

perched

birched

torched

psyched

vouched

couched

douched

hutched

bitched

ditched

hitched

pitched

witched

botched

hotched

notched

belched

welched

filched

mulched

ranched

leeched

poached

roached

coached

beached

leached

peached

reached

cinched

wenched

pinched

winched

benched

pooched

marched

lynched

synched

mooched

bunched

hunched

lunched

munched

punched

 

arched

teched

leched

peched

niched

bached

cached

inched

etched

itched

ouched

ruched

ached

eched

 

 

 

scratched

stretched

 

scootched

 

splotched

 

 

scrooched

staunched

craunched

scrunched

squinched

 

 

 

crushed

smashed

brushed

trashed

sloshed

 

blushed

flushed

slushed

shushed

 

wooshed

swished

welshed

swashed

slashed

fleshed

freshed

gnashed

crashed

stashed

quashed

clashed

flashed

plashed

deashed

leashed

 

whished

 

dished

bushed

unshed

wished

coshed

joshed

moshed

noshed

pished

gushed

hushed

lushed

mushed

pushed

rushed

tushed

fished

meshed

washed

bashed

cashed

dashed

fashed

gashed

hashed

lashed

mashed

pashed

 

 

ashed

 

 

shrewed

screwed

strewed

 

pshawed

thrawed

strawed

 

strowed

 

stewed

crewed

blowed

 

snawed

gnawed

flawed

blawed

clawed

shawed

thawed

chawed

shewed

chewed

viewed

brewed

spewed

slewed

skewed

clewed

 

chowed

showed

scowed

flowed

glowed

plowed

slowed

browed

snowed

crowed

avowed

stowed

trowed

 

 

jawed

mawed

pawed

hawed

cawed

dawed

lawed

tawed

yawed

sawed

hewed

dewed

bowed

dowed

cowed

jewed

mewed

rewed

sewed

tewed

sowed

towed

vowed

wowed

yowed

jowed

lowed

mowed

rowed

 

awed

owed

 

wed

 

 

sleeved

 

sheaved

sleaved

cleaved

grieved

glaived

 

steeved

thieved

 

shrived

thrived

strived

 

shelved

 

swerved

starved

grooved

 

leaved

reaved

deaved

heaved

slaved

shaved

weaved

braved

craved

graved

peeved

reeved

staved

waived

sieved

skived

reived

calved

halved

salved

valved

delved

helved

solved

swived

shoved

gloved

droved

groved

proved

hooved

carved

varved

nerved

curved

served

 

 

gyved

roved

coved

loved

moved

wived

dived

hived

jived

lived

rived

saved

waved

paved

raved

caved

eaved

laved

 

 

blamed

themed

premed

 

chimed

maimed

glimed

slimed

grimed

gemmed

hemmed

rammed

dammed

gammed

hammed

jammed

lammed

calmed

primed

bammed

culmed

filmed

palmed

helmed

teemed

deemed

seemed

framed

flamed

loamed

roamed

foamed

beamed

reamed

shamed

seamed

teamed

zoomed

boomed

doomed

loomed

roomed

farmed

harmed

bummed

gummed

hummed

dimmed

nimmed

rimmed

mummed

summed

tommed

normed

wormed

flumed

gaumed

warmed

bermed

permed

termed

firmed

formed

rhymed

plumed

spumed

 

famed

lamed

named

gamed

tamed

aimed

limed

mimed

rimed

timed

fumed

armed

domed

homed

 

 

scrammed

 

screamed

 

streamed

 

 

 

charmed

 

chromed

vroomed

 

groomed

broomed

gloomed

bloomed

 

brimmed

shimmed

skimmed

glommed

scummed

chummed

slummed

primmed

trimmed

slimmed

stummed

drummed

 

chasmed

spasmed

stormed

 

swarmed

chirmed

 

schemed

steamed

 

dreamed

breamed

creamed

gleamed

 

psalmed

scammed

clammed

flammed

slammed

shammed

whammed

crammed

spammed

drammed

 

claimed

 

 

throbbed

 

squibbed

scrubbed

 

clubbed

 

crabbed

 

blubbed

flubbed

slubbed

snubbed

stubbed

drubbed

grubbed

 

scribed

drabbed

grabbed

stabbed

blabbed

slabbed

swabbed

scabbed

 

knobbed

stobbed

swobbed

blobbed

cribbed

dribbed

snibbed

blurbed

 

climbed

thumbed

plumbed

crumbed

 

bombed

barbed

 

 

webbed

herbed

bibbed

dibbed

fibbed

gibbed

jibbed

nibbed

ribbed

fobbed

gobbed

hobbed

jobbed

lobbed

bobbed

mobbed

robbed

dubbed

sobbed

fubbed

jabbed

nabbed

sabbed

tabbed

cabbed

gabbed

dabbed

bribed

subbed

tubbed

rubbed

garbed

kerbed

sorbed

curbed

daubed

 

limbed

jambed

bulbed

combed

lambed

tombed

wombed

dumbed

probed

boobed

numbed

globed

 

lobed

robed

gybed

lubed

tubed

cubed

orbed

sabed

ebbed

gibed

jibed

 

 

squawked

 

checked

cracked

stacked

wrecked

crooked

stalked

whacked

 

sticked

crocked

swacked

 

frisked

whisked

brisked

chirked

shirked

smirked

quirked

sparked

stooked

stroked

revoked

invoked

charked

sharked

clerked

smerked

rebuked

drouked

peruked

quacked

wracked

specked

flecked

talcked

zincked

chocked

shocked

slicked

clicked

flicked

bricked

cricked

pricked

tricked

wricked

snicked

hoicked

sneaked

creaked

 

tweaked

freaked

wreaked

cloaked

croaked

troaked

 

straked

shacked

thacked

rewaked

kayaked

tracked

blacked

clacked

flacked

slacked

smacked

knacked

snacked

frocked

knocked

trocked

stocked

trucked

clucked

plucked

chucked

smocked

flocked

blocked

clocked

grokked

trekked

batiked

chalked

cheeked

shucked

steeked

cleeked

gleeked

sleeked

smeeked

booked

looked

cooked

marked

linked

backed

picked

packed

hooked

wicked

masked

peaked

forked

stoked

tanked

jacked

necked

corked

borked

dirked

yerked

porked

worked

burked

lurked

basked

casked

tasked

disked

risked

evoked

spoked

troked

barked

carked

darked

harked

larked

narked

parked

warked

jerked

perked

howked

gawked

hawked

jouked

fluked

yeuked

busked

dusked

husked

tusked

jauked

wauked

kecked

pecked

recked

dicked

sacked

tacked

yacked

becked

decked

gecked

sicked

ticked

cocked

docked

hocked

ricked

kicked

licked

nicked

hacked

awaked

racked

lacked

leaked

beaked

flaked

slaked

staked

quaked

snaked

braked

soaked

wanked

dinked

yanked

finked

jinked

kinked

oinked

pinked

winked

silked

yolked

bulked

hulked

sulked

banked

ranked

 

naked

baked

caked

faked

laked

raked

waked

deked

biked

liked

miked

piked

diked

hiked

inked

coked

hoked

joked

asked

tsked

irked

poked

toked

yoked

duked

juked

nuked

puked

dyked

ryked

 

 

 

striped

cramped

crisped

unhoped

taliped

steeped

creeped

bleeped

 

sneaped

escaped

scraped

cheeped

wheeped

 

galoped

stumped

whumped

chumped

thumped

tromped

stomped

primped

chomped

whomped

clomped

crumped

grumped

trumped

clumped

flumped

plumped

slumped

champed

tramped

stamped

clamped

whelped

scamped

swamped

crimped

skimped

sculped

skelped

scalped

grasped

clasped

chirped

sharped

slurped

usurped

stopped

dropped

propped

swopped

scarped

whupped

cropped

whopped

knopped

clopped

flopped

glopped

plopped

slopped

quipped

chopped

shopped

skipped

flipped

slipped

blipped

clipped

grouped 

whipped

tripped

snipped

dripped

gripped

drooped

trooped

stooped

swooped

whooped

scooped

blooped

 

snooped

slapped

clapped

flapped

chapped

whapped

swapped

prepped

stepped

chipped

shipped

trapped

wrapped

crapped

 

ripped

looped

hipped

couped

louped

rouped

jauped

yauped

gawped

yawped

cusped

souped

dipped

wapped

yapped

zapped

kepped

pepped

repped

napped

rapped

sapped

tapped

pooped

cooped

hooped

sloped

stoped

groped

capped

dapped

gapped

happed

lapped

mapped

nipped

pipped

sipped

gipped

lipped

kipped

bopped

copped

fopped

hopped

tipped

yipped

zipped

lopped

mopped

popped

wisped

lisped

rasped

gasped

hasped

burped

harped

warped

cupped

dupped

pupped

supped

tupped

carped

gypped

sopped

topped

beeped

soaped

craped

draped

shaped

reaped

scaped

leaped

heaped

sliped

aliped

griped

sniped

jeeped

peeped

seeped

creped

cleped

helped

palped

kelped

yelped

camped

swiped

stiped

temped

vamped

gimped

limped

pimped

gulped

pulped

 

 

biped

piped

riped

taped

raped

caped

gaped

japed

amped

wiped

siped

imped

coped

doped

hoped

loped

umped

roped

toped

upped

urped

hyped

typed

duped

 

 

skilled

wheeled

tangled

pickled

mottled

gnarled

marbled

dappled

bobsled

dogsled

whorled

raddled

skulled

muraled

unoiled

sozzled

unruled

rubbled

castled

jostled

bustled

hustled

kirtled

hurtled

turtled

nestled

pestled

gentled

wintled

mantled

footled

rootled

tootled

dartled

measled

enisled

warsledhirsled

hassled

rassled

tussled

beetled

tousled

cuttled

guttled

kittled

vittled

bottled

justled

rustled

battled

rattled

tattled

wattled

fettled

mettled

nettled

pettled

settled

 

shauled

 

 

scowled

shawled

brawled

crawled

drawled

growled

prowled

trawled

teazled

foozled

touzled

dazzled

fizzled

mizzled

sizzled

guzzled

muzzled

nuzzled

puzzled

sculled

 

knolled

woolled

swilled

twilled

drolled

trolled

drilled

spilled

frilled

grilled

prilled

trilled

stilled

quilled

 

failed

killed

titled

mailed

polled

boiled

misled

veiled

willed

fabled

cowled

fowled

wawled

yawled

mewled

bowled

bawled

styled

yowled

howled

jowled

aisled

fouled

souled

hauled

butled

 

mauled

wauled

tilled

nilled

pilled

rilled

lolled

dolled

bolled

rolled

cooled

fooled

tholed

pulled

gaoled

dulled

lulled

mulled

nulled

tolled

bulled

culled

fulled

gulled

hulled

birled

dirled

parled

marled

tirled

burled

curled

furled

hurled

nurled

purled

byrled

wooled

stoled

pooled

tooled

repled

impled

tabled

cabled

gabled

staled

foaled

goaled

scaled

healed

pealed

shaled

whaled

sealed

vialed

coaled

dialed

cycled

ladled

addled

macled

mobled

ambled

rifled

 

heeled

keeled

peeled

reeled

seeled

 

oiled

abled

naled

haled

baled

paled

waled

deled

idled

piled

riled

tiled

wiled

ailed

ogled

filed

puled

ruled

axled

muled

isled

voled

poled

soled

toled

unled

coled

doled

holed

 

 

 

sheafed

strafed

briefed

whiffed

quaffed

spiffed

cheffed

sniffed

coiffed

staffed

chaffed

piaffed

scoffed

feoffed

stiffed

scuffed

bluffed

chuffed

snuffed

pouffed

fluffed

sluffed

gruffed

stuffed

 

scarfed

wharfed

snarfed

dwarfed

 

whoofed

spoofed

proofed

 

hoofed

roofed

goofed

woofed

barfed

misfed

turfed

kerfed

surfed

poufed

webfed

beefed

reefed

chafed

leafed

loafed

miffed

waffed

yaffed

reffed

biffed

chefed

baffed

daffed

gaffed

naffed

malfed

selfed

golfed

rolfed

wolfed

gulfed

coifed

knifed

waifed

boffed

buffed

cuffed

riffed

tiffed

doffed

huffed

luffed

muffed

puffed

ruffed

 

fifed

wifed

 

 

blitzed

 

glitzed

waltzed

plotzed

snoozed

bronzed

whizzed

frizzed

quizzed

blowzed

 

breezed

wheezed

sneezed

tweezed

 

boozed

glozed

futzed

putzed

jazzed

fizzed

razzed

fezzed

buzzed

fuzzed

frized

prized

feezed

brazed

crazed

grazed

 

glazed

blazed

feazed

seized

 

sized

dozed

oozed

fuzed

dazed

gazed

fazed

hazed

lazed

mazed

razed

 

 

bruxed

fluxed

jinxed

 

coaxed

hoaxed

flexed

 

fixed

mixed

vexed

foxed

poxed

boxed

nixed

coxed

loxed

sexed

waxed

hexed

faxed

maxed

raxed

taxed

 

grudged

bludged

kludged

sludged

smudged

reneged

shagged

sledged

dredged

bridged

noodged

stodged

frigged

prigged

swagged

stagged

fragged

slagged

flagged

bragged

snagged

cragged

dragged

snogged

chugged

drugged

obliged

slugged

snugged

glugged

plugged

trigged

swigged

twigged

shogged

flogged

clogged

slogged

pranged

avenged

twanged

whanged

clanged

flanged

slanged

changed

blunged

plunged

wronged

lounged

thonged

sponged

pronged

swinged

twinged

wringed

clinged

whinged

cringed

fringed

stooged

charged

 

sparged

 

rugged

ragged

dogged

jagged

hanged

winged

wedged

ringed

legged

kegged

pegged

vegged

digged

figged

gigged

jigged

pigged

rigged

lagged

nagged

begged

zagged

wagged

sagged

tagged

fidged

ridged

lodged

dodged

budged

fudged

judged

bagged

fagged

gagged

hagged

nudged

sieged

imaged

unaged

staged

swaged

hedged

cadged

fadged

badged

kedged

kinged

pinged

zinged

bonged

singed

tinged

lunged

longed

gonged

ponged

tonged

bunged

dunged

surged

purged

gauged

gurged

verged

gorged

serged

forged

barged

parged

merged

tugged

ganged

banged

danged

fanged

bilged

bulged

panged

ranged

tanged

venged

binged

dinged

hinged

zigged

bogged

cogged

wigged

fogged

hogged

jogged

logged

mugged

pugged

nogged

sogged

togged

bugged

fugged

 

luged

urged

edged

waged

raged

caged

gaged

paged

egged

igged

 

aged

 

churred

blurred

slurred

charred

scarred

sparred

starred

gnarred

knarred

chirred

shirred

whirred

skirred

stirred

 

 

 

floored

 

spoored

 

 

cloured

floured

 

scoured

 

louvred

 

 

bleared

cleared

 

speared

 

squared

queered

steered

 

sneered

speered

 

fleered

cheered

sheered

 

 

sacred

 

barred

haired

inbred

furred

mitred

 

 

sabred

spared

stared

snared

flared

glared

soared

roared

blared

chared

shared

seared

teared

neared

reared

scared

geared

feared

nacred

tiered

jeered

leered

peered

veered

laired

heired

waired

faired

paired

spired

quired

ochred

 

yirred

purred

metred

burred

curred

garred

jarred

marred

tarred

parred

warred

birred

spored

moored

stored

snored

adored

scored

chored

odored

shored

whored

poured

soured

toured

enured

inured

loured

 

tired

wired

shred

eared

bared

cared

dared

fared

hared

wared

oared

pared

rared

tared

acred

cered

aired

fired

hired

mired

sired

bored

cored

sered

cured

dured

erred

pored

sored

gored

gyred

tyred

lured

mured

 

 

blessed

 

 

coursed

 

glassed

chassed

biassed

classed

 

woopsed

hearsed

 

cruised

 

bruised

flensed

 

 

pleased

creased

greased

 

phrased

cheesed

braised

 

jonesed

praised

 

 

spoused

groused

aroused

bloused

choused

hocused

recused

incused

focused

trussed

moussed

grossed

brassed

grassed

dressed

pressed

flossed

glossed

crossed

prissed

blissed

guessed

tressed

chowsed

blowsed

browsed

drowsed

 

closed

raised

poised

unused

biased

cursed

lapsed

pissed

versed

gassed

cussed

irised

noised

hoised

prised

pursed

massed

passed

nursed

horsed

prosed

parsed

roosed

tensed

rinsed

mensed

sensed

goosed

loosed

noosed

censed

lensed

 

pulsed

guised

chased

teased

phased

abased

ceased

feased

leased

sudsed

erased

peised

seised

bussed

tossed

fussed

mussed

abused

caused

paused

sussed

boused

doused

amused

reused

housed

loused

moused

roused

soused

toused

wissed

bossed

dossed

mossed

dissed

hissed

kissed

yessed

missed

cessed

sassed

fessed

jessed

messed

bowsed

dowsed

tawsed

 

lysed

bused

fused

mused

rosed

dosed

hosed

nosed

posed

wised

vised

based

cased

eased

lased

rased

used

 

cliqued

 

leagued

plagued

tongued

 

queued

 

 

 

thoued

piqued

 

feued

trued

blued

clued

flued

glued

slued

spued

 

hued

cued

rued

sued

 

 

tried

dried

cried

fried

shied

spied

flied

plied

skied

pried

 

stied

wried

 

lied

pied

gied

hied

died

tied

vied

 

 

pierced

tierced

 

pounced

sconced

 

jaunced

bounced

jounced

sourced

 

spruced

spliced

 

sluiced

 

glanced

pranced

tranced

 

 

flocced

specced

fleeced

 

forced

voiced

spaced

juiced

deuced

truced

synced

farced

ponced

minced

winced

zinced

disced

sauced

 

danced

talced

sliced

spiced

priced

triced

lanced

fenced

placed

peaced

sicced

ticced

traced

braced

graced

deiced

pieced

 

viced

riced

raced

diced

faced

laced

maced

paced

arced

 

iced

aced

 

skreeghed

scraighed

 

ploughed

sloughed

sleighed

 

soughed

toughed

roughed

laughed

boughed

coughed

thighed

neighed

weighed

 

nighed

sighed

sughed

 

 

 

 

50
0
Наверх
Нужна консультация? Запись на тестирование